Landmark Agreements and Declarations
Landmark Agreements:

Seminar on National Solidarity

Thoo Mweh klo Agreement

Date: December 14, 1998

Burma is a country inhabited by many indigenous ethnic nationalities. In the modern Burmese history, even though the consensus agreement between General Aung San and the leaders of indigenous ethnic nationalities had achieved national solidarity and obtained independence, this solidarity deteriorated along with the death of general Aung San.

As a consequence of long years of oppression under the military dictatorship, the national solidarity is in a vulnerable state of total disintegration. The immediate need of the people of all the nationalities, being the abolition of the military dictatorship and the building of a modern society with lasting peace and prosperity, could be achieved only through a consolidated national strength. Thus, the building of national solidarity is the main task of the people of all the nationalities, today. Just as the National League for Democracy (NLD), led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the political parties representing the nationalities, jointly and actively have been undertaking the said task, we, the 23 organizations, whose signatures appeared below, successfully held the "Seminar on National Solidarity," from the 12th to 14th of December, 1998, at Thoo Mweh Klo, Kawthoolei State, and unanimously reached the agreement given below.

1.             The Seminar recognized that the 1947 Panglong Agreement and pledges contained in the Agreement, the 1990 Bo Aung Kyaw Street Declaration, the 1992 Marnerplaw Agreement and the 1997 Mae Tha Raw Hta Agreement are the historic agreements representing the fundamental interest of the ethnic nationalities and the people.

2.            The Seminar unanimously determined that the conflict prevailing in Burma is a conflict between the oppressive military dictatorship, on the one side, and the oppressed people of all the nationalities on the other, and as it has been intensifying, day by day, it is now approaching a decisive stage.

3.             As a result of domination of the SLORC/SPDC military dictatorship, there was lack of democratic rights and loss of the rights of the nationalities, in present day Burma. Therefore, it was unanimously decided that the abolishment of the military dictatorship was the principal and common task of the country.

4.             It was decided that all political parties, organizations and individuals, irrespective of race, religion and political ideology, were to join hands and work together, starting from the lowest possible stage, in the struggling for the abolition of the SLORC/SPDC military dictatorship.

5.             The SLORC/SPDC has no right to lead in organizing and convening the National Convention. Therefore, the Seminar unanimously decided that the National Convention of the SPDC could absolutely not be accepted.

6.             The Seminar unanimously decided to promote and practice the multi-party democratic system, in accordance with aspiration of the entire people of all the Nationalities.

7.             The Seminar unanimously decided to establish a genuine federal union, composed of national states, having national equality and full right of self-determination.

8.             The Seminar decided to support the demand for the convening of parliament, formation of the Committee Representing People's Parliament and the Parliamentary Affairs Committees by the victorious parties in the 1990 election, the National League for Democracy (NLD) and the 4 political parties representing the ethnic nationalities.

9.             This Seminar decided to cooperate in the struggle for the emergence of tripartite dialogue, as an immediate task.

10.           The Seminar welcomed and supported the active involvement of the United Nations and the international organizations for the establishment of peace and democracy in Burma. Since the 1998 UNGA Resolutions on Burma were correct, the Seminar unanimously demanded that they be implemented, in practice, by the responsible authorities.

11.           The Seminar strongly condemned the involvement of the SPDC military dictatorship, as a principal partner, in the cultivation, by the responsible authorities.

12.           The Seminar called upon foreign investors not to invest in Burma, so long as the SPDC military dictatorship was in power.

13.           The Seminar decided that all the organizations attending the Seminar were to take the responsibility for the maintenance and implementation of the decisions and to form a Coordinating and Organizing Committee in order to continue for the implementation the decisions.



1.         U Tin Maung thet


            All Burma Muslim Union (ABMU)


2.         U Myo Win

            Secretary (2)

            All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF)


3.         U Myat Thu


            All Burma Students' League (ABSL)


4.         Ashin Kaymar Sara


            All Burma Young Monk's Union (ABYMU)


5.         U Tha Noe


            Arakan League for Democracy (ALD)


6.         Khaing Myo Min

            General Secretary

            Arakan Liberation Party (ALP)


7.         S'lai Shwe Khar

            Secretary, Foreign Affair Department

            Chin National Front (CNF)]


8.         S'lai Tha Nei Luai


            Chin National League for Democracy (CNLD)


9.         Saw Jacob

            Central Organizing Committee

            Communist Party of Burma (CPB)


10.       U Zaw Naing Oo

            General Secretary

            Democratic Party for a New Society (DPNS)


11.      Saw Shwe Hser


            Karen National Union (KNU)


12.       B. Kyah Oo

            General Secretary

            Lahu Democratic Front (LDF)


13.       U Soe Lwin


            Myeik-Dewai United Front (MDUF)


14.       U Kyaw Hla


            Muslim Liberation Organization (MLO)


15.       U Deniel Aung


            Members of Parliament Union


16.       U Than Htut


            National League for Democracy-Liberated Area (NLD-LA)


17.       U Kyaw Htet


            People Defense Force (PDF)


18.       U Aye Saung

            Secretary General

            People's Liberation Front (PLF)


19.       Khun Okker


            Pa-O People's Liberation Organization (PPLO)


20.       U Aung Myint

            General Secretary

            People's Patriotic Party (PPP)


21.       Mai Aik Pong


            Palaung State Liberation Front (PSLF)


22.       Khun Kyar Nu


            Shan Democratic Union (SDU)


23.       Maha San


            Wa National Organization (WNO)


24.       U Maung Maung Latt


            Members of Parliament Union

Bangkok Office : Burma Lawyers' Council
P.O. Box 29, Hua Mark Post Office, 10243, Bangkok Thailand
, E- Mail : [email protected]
  for additional information about our branches click here

Myanmar Law (Alphabetical)

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y
| Z |

Myarmar Law (By Years)
1988 | 1989 | 1990 | 1991 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003
Legal Issues on Burma Journal
Journal of Constitutional Affairs
Copyright 2003 Burma Lawyers' Council. Privacy Policy | Photo Credits