Landmark Agreements/Declarations

Bommersvik Declaration II

Convention of Elected Representatives Union of Burma

25 February-1 March 2002
Bommersvik, Sweden

We, the representatives of the people of Burma, elected in the 27 May 1990 general elections (presently serving as members of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma and/or the Members of Parliament Union), meeting at the Convention of Elected Representatives held in Bommersvik for the second time, hereby reaffirm -

Our Mandate, Position, and Strategic Objectives

- that we will never ignore the will of the Burmese people expressed through the May 1990 general elections;

- that the military’s refusal to honor the election results does not in any way diminish the validity of these results;

- that our mandates are derived from the election victory of the National League for Democracy (NLD) and the other political parties in the 1990 general elections;

- that our roles are to support and facilitate the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the other election-winning parties to implement the 1990 election results;

- that our objective is (1) to end military rule, (2) to establish democracy, and (3) to establish a federal Union of Burma;

- that based on the 1990 election results, the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has the mandate to form the Government of the Union of Burma, and that the NLD and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi have the right to enter into a dialogue with the SPDC and others, and to negotiate a transition to democracy;

- that in the light of current political developments our immediate objectives are to promote and ensure, to the extent possible, that

A. the current talks between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the SPDC do not break down,
B. the talks become official and irreversible
C. the talks be speeded up to a political dialogue
D. the talks become a tripartite dialogue as soon as possible.
- that in carrying out the activities in support of the above objectives, we undertake to ensure that our activities

1. do not undermine the position of the NLD/Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the ethnic nationalities,
2. facilitate national reconciliation, and
3. promote nation-building.
Appreciation and Appeal

We, the representatives of the people of Burma:

- Welcome initiatives by non-Burman ethnic nationalities reaffirming their commitment to ensure the integrity of the Union and to rebuild it on the basis of ‘Panglong Spirit’

- Express firm solidarity with the people of Burma who, despite the hardships and oppression, continue to strive for democracy

- Appreciate and encourage Burma support groups worldwide for their divestment, consumer boycott, and shareholder campaigns in support of the Burmese people and the democracy movement,

- Appreciate the trade unions, employers, and governments for their role at the International Labor Organization conference and urge them to implement the recommendations of the ILO's governing body in November 2000 until forced labor practices end in Burma,

- Support the call on SPDC by UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights Pinheiro to declare a nationwide ceasefire for the effective delivery of humanitarian assistance through a consultative process involving the NLD, the SPDC, ethnic leaders from respective States and international NGOs,

- Appreciate the UN Secretary General Office and UN Special Envoy Ambassador Tan Sri Razali Ismail’s initiatives to facilitate the national reconciliation process in Burma,

- Thank the Nobel laureates for their calls to bring about peace and national reconciliation in Burma at the 10th anniversary of Nobel Peace Prize for Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and request them to continue their efforts to help bring democracy to the country,

- Appreciate and commend Norway, the European Union, the United States, Canada and all other nations for their unwavering support to restore democracy in Burma, and in particular request:

1. The European Union to incorporate in its Common Position measures aimed at speeding up the talk process in Burma, and

2. The United States and Canada to maintain their strong position until a genuine national reconciliation takes place in Burma

- Appeal to the Japanese Government to withhold resumption of Official Development Assistance until a transparent, accountable and responsive government of national reconciliation is in place, and

- Request neighboring countries to Burma to fully support and cooperate with the UN Special Envoy in his endeavors to bring about national reconciliation in the interests of regional stability and development.

- Appreciate the more than 3,000 Members of Parliaments worldwide who have signed their declaration of support for fellow MPs in Burma and request them to help the people of Burma by forming Burma caucuses in their Parliaments as recommended by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, and

- Deeply appreciate the Swedish Government and Parliament, Olof Palme International Center, Swedish institutions and people for making the Convention of Elected Representatives of Burma possible and for their warm and cordial hospitality, friendship, and support.

- Urge the SPDC to immediately seek a negotiated political settlement and begin an inclusive nation-building process to alleviate the suffering of the people and the country,


Bo Thaung, U NLD MPU
Daniel Aung, U LNDP MPU
Khin Kyaw Han, U NLD MPU
Lian Uk, U Ind MPU
Maung Maung Aye, U NLD NCGUB/MPU
Maung Maung Latt, U NLD MPU
Sai Win Pay, U SNLD MPU
Sann Aung, Dr Ind NCGUB/MPU
Teddy Buri, U NLD MPU
Thang Lian Pau, U ZNC MPU
Than Sein, U NLD MPU
Tin Tut, U NLD MPU
ALD = Arakan League for Democracy
DOKNU = Democratic Organization for Kayan National Unity
Ind = Independent
LNDP = Lahu National Development Party
NLD = National League for Democracy
PND = Party for National Democracy
SNLD = Shan Nationalities League for Democracy
ZNC = Zomi National Congress

Mae Tha Raw Hta Agreement


(Mae Tha Raw Hta)

Mae Tha Raw Hta Agreement

We, leaders of Arakanese, Chin, Kachin, Karen Karenni, Mon, Pa-O, Palaung, Lahu, Shan and Wa ethnic nationalities, representing the various organizations as well as the nationalities, attended the seminar held from January 7 to 14, 1997 at Mae Tha Raw Hta in Kawthoolei.

We, leaders of nationalities mentioned above, after frank and cordial discussions in depth, have agreed upon the following terms.

1. Agreement relating to Political Aims

(a) To dismantle the military dictatorship and establish peace n the country;

(b) To practice the democratic political system;

(c) To achieve the rights of equality and self-determination for each and every nationality;

(d) To establish a federal union.

2. Agreement Concerning the SLORC's National Convention

The sham National Convention being held by the SLORC, presently, is for the perpetuation of military dictatorship. Since absolutely no rights will be gained for the ethnic nationalities, we, the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, do not in any way recognize the SLORC's National Convention and agree to oppose it.

3. Agreement Regarding Tri-partite Dialogue

We, the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, accept the tri-partite dialogue agreed to by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and called for by the resolutions of the UN and international organizations. The tri-partite dialogue must include three forces, namely the force composed of the National Democratic Front (NDF), Union Nationalities League for Democracy (UNLD), Peace and Democratic Front (PDF) and other ethnic nationalities, the Pro-democracy forces led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the SLORC military clique.

4. Agreement Relating to Federal Union

We, the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, unanimously agree to establish a genuine federal union composed of national states having the full rights of national equality and self-determination.

5. Agreement Relating to Economic Policy

Regarding the economic policy, we, the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, agree to practice a market economic system and invite foreign investments.

However, as foreign investments, at present, are benefiting the SLORC military dictatorship only and increasing its oppressive power, we strongly object to them.

6. Agreement Relating to Narcotic Drugs

We, the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, unanimously agree to cooperate with international narcotic drug eradication organizations for the eradication of the entire business of narcotic drugs, including cultivation, production and trafficking.

7. Agreement Regarding Pro-democracy Forces

We, the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, agree to raise the fight, on all sides, in the fields of politics, diplomacy and people's action, for the dismantling of the SLORC military dictatorship.

In this struggle, we agree also to join hands with pro-democracy forces led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and act unitedly and simultaneously for the achievement of rights of the nationalities as well as democratic rights.

Moreover, we acknowledge the National League for Democracy (NLD) led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi as the winner of 1990 general election an accordance with the true will of the people and democratic process, we fully support all acts of opposition against the SLORC, by it.

8. Agreement Relating to ASEAN

We, the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, agree to send letters to ASEAN, requesting it to delay, indefinitely, acceptance of Burma under the SLORC, as a member of the organization.

10. Agreement on Reunion

We, the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, agree to maintain and implement the results of the seminar and to have a reunion at least once a year.

1. (Gen. Aung Than Lay)
Karen National Progressive Party

2. (Col. Khun Okker)
Pa-O People's Liberation Organization

3. (Col Maha Sean)
Wa National Organization

4. (Col Sai Pao Sing)
United Wa State Party

5. (Mai Aik Phone)
Palaung State Liberation Front

6. (Col. Zau Seng)
Kachin Independent Organization

7. (Khing Myat Kyaw)
All Araken Students and youth congress

8. (B. Kya Oo)
Lahu Democratic Front

9. (Nai Han Tha)
New Mon State Party

10. (Khing Soe Naing Aung)
Araken Liberation Party

11. (Khun Na Ruh)
Kayan New Land Party

12. (Sao Oac Kesi)
Shan United Revolutionary Army

13. (Slai Shwe Kha)
Chin National Front

14. (Khun Home)
Shan Democratic Union

15. (Gen Saw Bo Mya)
Karen National Union

16. Individual Delegates

(i) Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe

(ii) Naw Louish Benson

(iii) Khun Marko Ban


(signed February 12, 1947)

A conference having been held at Panglong, attended by certain Members of the Executive Council of the Governor of Burma, all Saohpas and representatives of the Shan States, the Kachin Hills and the Chin Hills:

The Members of the Conference, believing that freedom will be more speedily achieved by the Shans, the Kachins and the Chins by their immediate co-operation with the Interim Burmese Government:

The Members of the Conference have accordingly, and without dissentients, agreed as follows: -

1. A representative of the Hill Peoples, selected by the Governor on the recommendation of representatives of the Supreme Council of the United Hill Peoples (SCOUHP), shall be appointed a counselor to the Governor to deal with the Frontier Areas.

2. The said Counselor shall also be appointed a Member of the Governor's Executive Council, without portfolio, and the subject of Frontier Areas brought within the purview of the Executive council by Constitutional Convention as in the case of Defence and External Affairs. The Counselor for Frontier Areas shall be given executive authority by similar means.

3. The said Counselor shall be assisted by two Deputy Counselors representing races of which he is not a member. While the two Deputy Counselors should deal in the first instance with the affairs of the respective areas and the Counselor with all the remaining parts of the Frontier Areas, they should by Constitutional Convention act on the principle of joint responsibility.

4. While the Counselor, in his capacity of Member of the Executive Council, will be the only representative of the Frontier Areas on the Council, the Deputy Counselors shall be entitled to attend meetings of the Council when subjects pertaining to the Frontier Areas are discussed.

5. Though the governor's Executive Council will be augmented as agreed above, it will not operate in respect of the Frontier Areas in any manner which would deprive any portion of these Areas of the Autonomy which it now enjoys in internal administration. Full autonomy in internal administration for the Frontier Areas is accepted in principle.

6. Though the question of demarcation and establishing a separate Kachin State within a Unified Burma is one which must be relegated for decision by the Constituent Assembly, it is agreed that such a State is desirable. As first step towards this end, the Counselor for Frontier Areas and the Deputy Counselors shall be consulted in the administration of such areas in the Myitkyina and the Bhamo District as are Part II Scheduled Areas under the Government of Burma Act of 1935.

7. Citizens of the Frontier Areas shall enjoy rights and privileges which are regarded as fundamental in democratic countries.

8. The arrangements accepted in this Agreement are without prejudice to the financial autonomy now vested in the Federated Shan States.

9. The arrangements accepted in this Agreement are without prejudice to the financial assistance which the Kachin Hills and the Chin Hills are entitled to receive from the revenues of Burma, and the Executive Council will examine with the Frontier Areas Counselor and Deputy Counselors the feasibility of adopting for the Kachin Hills and the Chin Hills financial arrangements similar to those between Burma and the Federated Shan States.

* Reproduced in teh REport of the Frontier Areas Committee of Enquiry, Government Press, Rangoon, 1947. Also checked with copy of Agreement preserved by U Vum Ko Hau, Minister in Paris, who took part in the Panglong conference as a leader of the Chins.

The Law Khii Lah Agreement

August 30, 2001

Ethnic nationalities leaders from major organizations met at the Lw Khii Lah Camp, Kawthoolei, From August 26-30, 2001, and discussed the need for unity and closer cooperation in a fraternal spirit and atmosphere.

The leaders agreed on the need to strengthen the unity of the Ethnic Nationalities and a working committee, the Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee (ENSCC), was thereby established. The committee has been entrusted with the task of fostering unity and cooperation between all Ethnic Nationalities forces and to promote a peaceful political settlement in Burma through tripartite dialogue.

The Ethnic Nationalities are cautiously optimistic about the talks held since October 2000 in Tangoon between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The Ethnic Nationalities leaders welcome and fully support the efforts of Ambassador H.E. Razali Ismail, the U.N. Special Envoy, to facilitate a peaceful settlement through a tripartite dialogue in Burma.

It was also resolved that the Ethnic Nationalities forces would:

Undertake pro-active and constructive actions to bring about a peaceful resolution to the political conflict in Burma through a dialogue process involving the SPCD, the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the Ethnic Nationalities as dialogue partners;

Consult widely, cooperate, and work closely with all stakeholders in Burma and with the international community, international bodies and agencies, the U.N., and humanitarian organizations to resolve the grave humanitarian crises in Burma, which most seriously affect the Ethnic Nationalities population;

Strive to facilitate and orderly and peaceful democratic transition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in accordance with the spirit of Panglong, the principle of Equality, Self-Determination, Democracy, and Justice.


1. Arakan Liberation Party (ALP),

2. Chin National Front (CNF),

3. Karen National Union (KNU),

4. Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP),

5. Lahu Democratic Front (LDF), and

6. Palaung State Liberation Organization (PSLF),

7. Pa-O People's Liberation Organization (PPLO),

8. Shan Democratic Union (SDU),

9. United Nationalities League for Democracy/Liberated Area (UNLD/LA)*

Other allied Ethnic Nationalities organizations

* The UNLD was unilaterally dissolved by the State law and Order Council (SLORC) in 1992. Thus the UNLD in exile was formed in the liberated area in order to carry out the mission of the organization. An official announcement on the formation of the UNLD/LA (in exile) was made on Union Day, 1998.

Thoo Mweh klo Agreement

Seminar on National Solidarity

Thoo Mweh klo Agreement

Date: December 14, 1998

Burma is a country inhabited by many indigenous ethnic nationalities. In the modern Burmese history, even though the consensus agreement between General Aung San and the leaders of indigenous ethnic nationalities had achieved national solidarity and obtained independence, this solidarity deteriorated along with the death of general Aung San.

As a consequence of long years of oppression under the military dictatorship, the national solidarity is in a vulnerable state of total disintegration. The immediate need of the people of all the nationalities, being the abolition of the military dictatorship and the building of a modern society with lasting peace and prosperity, could be achieved only through a consolidated national strength. Thus, the building of national solidarity is the main task of the people of all the nationalities, today. Just as the National League for Democracy (NLD), led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the political parties representing the nationalities, jointly and actively have been undertaking the said task, we, the 23 organizations, whose signatures appeared below, successfully held the "Seminar on National Solidarity," from the 12th to 14th of December, 1998, at Thoo Mweh Klo, Kawthoolei State, and unanimously reached the agreement given below.

1. The Seminar recognized that the 1947 Panglong Agreement and pledges contained in the Agreement, the 1990 Bo Aung Kyaw Street Declaration, the 1992 Marnerplaw Agreement and the 1997 Mae Tha Raw Hta Agreement are the historic agreements representing the fundamental interest of the ethnic nationalities and the people.

2. The Seminar unanimously determined that the conflict prevailing in Burma is a conflict between the oppressive military dictatorship, on the one side, and the oppressed people of all the nationalities on the other, and as it has been intensifying, day by day, it is now approaching a decisive stage.

3. As a result of domination of the SLORC/SPDC military dictatorship, there was lack of democratic rights and loss of the rights of the nationalities, in present day Burma. Therefore, it was unanimously decided that the abolishment of the military dictatorship was the principal and common task of the country.

4. It was decided that all political parties, organizations and individuals, irrespective of race, religion and political ideology, were to join hands and work together, starting from the lowest possible stage, in the struggling for the abolition of the SLORC/SPDC military dictatorship.

5. The SLORC/SPDC has no right to lead in organizing and convening the National Convention. Therefore, the Seminar unanimously decided that the National Convention of the SPDC could absolutely not be accepted.

6. The Seminar unanimously decided to promote and practice the multi-party democratic system, in accordance with aspiration of the entire people of all the Nationalities.

7. The Seminar unanimously decided to establish a genuine federal union, composed of national states, having national equality and full right of self-determination.

8. The Seminar decided to support the demand for the convening of parliament, formation of the Committee Representing People's Parliament and the Parliamentary Affairs Committees by the victorious parties in the 1990 election, the National League for Democracy (NLD) and the 4 political parties representing the ethnic nationalities.

9. This Seminar decided to cooperate in the struggle for the emergence of tripartite dialogue, as an immediate task.

10. The Seminar welcomed and supported the active involvement of the United Nations and the international organizations for the establishment of peace and democracy in Burma. Since the 1998 UNGA Resolutions on Burma were correct, the Seminar unanimously demanded that they be implemented, in practice, by the responsible authorities.

11. The Seminar strongly condemned the involvement of the SPDC military dictatorship, as a principal partner, in the cultivation, by the responsible authorities.

12. The Seminar called upon foreign investors not to invest in Burma, so long as the SPDC military dictatorship was in power.

13. The Seminar decided that all the organizations attending the Seminar were to take the responsibility for the maintenance and implementation of the decisions and to form a Coordinating and Organizing Committee in order to continue for the implementation the decisions.


1. U Tin Maung thet


All Burma Muslim Union (ABMU)

2. U Myo Win

Secretary (2)

All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF)

3. U Myat Thu


All Burma Students' League (ABSL)

4. Ashin Kaymar Sara


All Burma Young Monk's Union (ABYMU)

5. U Tha Noe


Arakan League for Democracy (ALD)

6. Khaing Myo Min

General Secretary

Arakan Liberation Party (ALP)

7. S'lai Shwe Khar

Secretary, Foreign Affair Department

Chin National Front (CNF)]

8. S'lai Tha Nei Luai


Chin National League for Democracy (CNLD)

9. Saw Jacob

Central Organizing Committee

Communist Party of Burma (CPB)

10. U Zaw Naing Oo

General Secretary

Democratic Party for a New Society (DPNS)

11. Saw Shwe Hser


Karen National Union (KNU)

12. B. Kyah Oo

General Secretary

Lahu Democratic Front (LDF)

13. U Soe Lwin


Myeik-Dewai United Front (MDUF)

14. U Kyaw Hla


Muslim Liberation Organization (MLO)

15. U Deniel Aung


Members of Parliament Union

16. U Than Htut


National League for Democracy-Liberated Area (NLD-LA)

17. U Kyaw Htet


People Defense Force (PDF)

18. U Aye Saung

Secretary General

People's Liberation Front (PLF)

19. Khun Okker


Pa-O People's Liberation Organization (PPLO)

20. U Aung Myint

General Secretary

People's Patriotic Party (PPP)

21. Mai Aik Pong


Palaung State Liberation Front (PSLF)

22. Khun Kyar Nu


Shan Democratic Union (SDU)

23. Maha San


Wa National Organization (WNO)

24. U Maung Maung Latt


Members of Parliament Union